Chronology


Chronology
   The ancient Egyptian calendar consisted of a year of 360 days divided into the three seasons akhet (flood), peret (sowing) and shemu (harvest), plus five extra days at the end of the year. Each season was comprised of four months of 30 days and was in turn divided into three weeks of 10 days of 24 hours split between night and day. Because the calendar did not include the extra one-quarter day of the earth’s rotation, the civil calendar gradually diverged from the solar year so that the months moved, and the two only harmonized briefly every 1,460 years. The solar year was measured from the annual rising of the star Sirius, which becomes visible around July of each year in the modern calendar.
   A third calendar used for administrative purposes was the regnal year initially based on the biennial cattle count during the Old Kingdom and from the Middle Kingdom onward the king’s actual years, although his first year was foreshortened, so the beginning of his second might coincide with the beginning of the civil year. This practice was abandoned during the New Kingdomwhen the full regnal year was dated from the king’s accession, but calculation of the regnal year reverted to the old system during the Late Period. Thus three different dating systems—solar, civil, and regnal—were used during the New Kingdom.
   The conversion of Egyptian dates to the modern Julian calendar is not exact. Dating from the Late Period is fixed by synchronisms with Assyrian, Persian, Greek, and Roman dating systems. It is known that the solar and civil calendars coincided in 139 AD, thus the previous coincidence would have occurred 1,460 years earlier— the period being known as a Sothic cycle—but the use of astronomical references to the rising of the star Sirius are too unclear to be of use. The most effective method for determining chronology is through use of the detailed king listsknown from such documents as the Palermo Stone or Turin Royal Canon or authors following Manetho supplemented by synchronisms with Mesopotamian or Hittite kings and astronomical dating when available. For earlier periods, radiocarbon dating has proved most useful. The chronology of ancient Egypt is under constant revision as new discoveries are made.
Historical Dictionary Of Ancient Egypt by Morris L. Bierbrier
Chronology
200000–12000 BC Palaeolithic Period.
12000–5000 BC Epipalaeolithic Period.
5000 BC Beginning of Neolithic Period.
5000–4000 BC Badarian culture.
4000–3500 BC Naqada I Period.
3500–3100 BC Naqada II Period.
3100 BC Union of Egypt. Dynasty 1.
3100–2686 BC Early Dynastic Period (Dynasties 1–2).
c. 3100 BC Reign of Narmer.
c. 3080 BC Reign of Aha.
c. 3050 BC Reign of Djer.
c. 3000 BC Reign of Djet.
c. 2985 BC Reign of Den. Merneith regent.
c. 2935 BC Reign of Anedjib.
c. 2925 BC Reign of Semerkhet.
c. 2915 BC Reign of Qaa.
2890–2686 BC Dynasty 2.
c. 2890 BC Reign of Hotepsekhemwy.
c. 2850 BC Reign of Raneb.
c. 2810 BC Reign of Nynetjer.
c. 2760 BC Reign of Peribsen.
c. 2730 BC Reign of Khasekhemwy.
2686–2181 BC Old Kingdom.
2686 BC Beginning of Dynasty 3.
2686–2667 BC Reign of Sanakhte.
2667–2648 BC Reign of Djoser. Construction of step pyramid of Djoser at Saqqara. First stone building.
2648–2640 BC Reign of Sekhemkhet. Unfinished pyramid at Saqqara.
2640–2637 BC Reign of Khaba.
2637–2613 BC Reign of Huni.
2613–2589 BC Dynasty 4. Reign of Snefru. Construction of first true pyramids at Dahshur and Meidum.
2589–2566 BC Reign of Khufu. Construction of first pyramid at Giza.
2566–2558 BC Reign of Djedefre. Construction of pyramid at Abu Roash.
2558–2532 BC Reign of Khafre. Construction of second pyramid at Giza.
2532–2503 BC Reign of Menkaure. Construction of third pyramid at Giza.
2494–2345 BC Dynasty 5. Cult of Re. Construction of pyramids at Abusir.
2494–2487 BC Reign of Userkaf.
2487–2475 BC Reign of Sahure.
2475–2455 Reign of Neferirkare.
2455–2448 BC Reign of Shepsekare.
2448–2445 BC Reign of Raneferef.
2445–2421 BC Reign of Niuserre.
2421–2414 BC Reign of Menkauhor.
2414–2375 Reign of Djedkare.
2375–2345 BC Reign of Unas. Construction of first inscribed pyramid at Saqqara.
2345–2181 BC Dynasty 6.
2345–2323 BC Reign of Teti.
2323–2321 BC Reign of Userkare.
2321–2287 BC Reign of Pepy I.
2287–2278 BC Reign of Merenre Nemtyemsaf I.
2278–2184 BC Reign of Pepy II.
2184–2183 BC Reign of Merenre Nemtyemsaf II.
2183–2181 Reign of Nitocris.
2181–2040 BC First Intermediate Period. Collapse of central authority and onset of civil war. Dynasties 7–11.
c. 2125 BC Reign of Mentuhotep I. Founding of Dynasty 11 at Thebes.
2055 BC Accession of Mentuhotep II of Dynasty 11 at Thebes.
2040–1795 BC Middle Kingdom.
2040–1985 BC Dynasty 11 of united Egypt.
2040 BC Reunification of Egypt under Mentuhotep II of Thebes.
Building work at Deir el-Bahri.
2004 BC Death of Mentuhotep II.
2004–1992 BC Reign of Mentuhotep III.
1992–1985 BC Reign of Mentuhotep IV.
1985–1795 BC Dynasty 12.
1985–1955 BC Reign of Amenemhat I, founder of Dynasty 12. Capital moved to Lisht in Middle Egypt.
1965 BC Senusret I named as coregent.
1955 BC Assassination of Amenemhat I. Sole rule of Senusret I.
1922 BC Amenemhat II named as coregent.
1920 BC Death of Senusret I. Sole Rule of Amenemhat II.
1880 BC Senusret II named as coregent.
1878 BC Death of Amenemhat II. Sole rule of Senusret II.
1874 BC Death of Senusret II. Accession of Senusret III.
1855 BC Death of Senusret III. Accession of Amenemhat III.
1808 BC Death of Amenemhat III. Accession of Amenemhat IV.
1799 BC Death of Amenemhat IV.
1799–1795 BC Reign of Queen Sobekneferu. End of Dynasty 12.
1795–1650 BC Dynasties 13–14. Second Intermediate Period. Disintegration of central authority. Infiltration and conquest of the north by Hyksos.
1650–1550 BC Rule of Hyksos. Dynasties 15–16 in the north. Dy
nasty 17 at Thebes.
1560 BC Campaign of Thebes against the Hyksos begins.
1550–1069 BC New Kingdom.
1550 BC Sack of Avaris and expulsion of Hyksos. Reunification of
Egypt under Ahmose I of Dynasty 18. Elevation of Amun as chief
god. Expansion into Nubia.
1525 BC Death of Ahmose I. Accession of Amenhotep I.
1504 BC Death of Amenhotep I. Accession of Thutmose I.
1504–1492 BC Reign of Thutmose I. Egyptian armies in the Levant. Founding of Deir el-Medina and Valley of the Kings.
1492 BC Death of Thutmose I. Accession of Thutmose II.
1479 BC Death of Thutmose II. Accession of Thutmose III. Hatshepsut as regent.
1472–1458 BC Reign of Hatshepsut. Expedition to Punt. Building at Deir el-Bahri.
1458 BC Death or disappearance of Hatshepsut. Battle of Megiddo.
1458–1425 BC Thutmose III consolidates Egypt’s empire in SyriaPalestine and in Nubia.
1425 BC Death of Thutmose III. Accession of Amenhotep II. Rebellion in Syria and Nubia.
1400 BC Death of Amenhotep II. Accession of Thutmose IV.
1390 BC Death of Thutmose IV. Accession of Amenhotep III.
1389 BC Marriage of Amenhotep III and Tiy.
1381 BC Marriage of Amenhotep III and Gilikhepa of Mitanni.
1352 BC Death of Amenhotep III. Accession of Amenhotep IV Akhenaten.
1352–1336 BC Reign of Akhenaten. Attempt at religious change to worship of Aten. Loss of northern part of Syrian province to the Hittites.
1336–1338 BC Reign of Smenkhkare.
1336 BC Accession of Tutankhamun. Return to former religious practices.
1327 BC Death of Tutankhamun. Accession of Ay.
1323 BC Death of Ay. Accession of Horemheb.
1295 BC Death of Horemheb. Accession of Ramesses I. Founding of Dynasty 19.
1294 BC Death of Ramesses I. Accession of Sety I.
1279 BC Death of Sety I. Accession of Ramesses II.
1274 BC Battle of Kadesh. Ramesses II fails to win back lost Syrian provinces from Hittites.
1258 BC Egyptian–Hittite peace treaty.
1245 BC Egyptian–Hittite marriage alliance.
1213 BC Death of Ramesses II. Accession of Merenptah.
1209 BC War against the Libyans and Sea Peoples. First mention of Israel.
1202 BC Death of Merenptah. Civil war between Sety II and Amenmesse.
1199 BC Overthrow of Amenmesse. Rule of Sety II over a reunited Egypt.
1196 BC Death of Sety II. Accession of Siptah.
1190 BC Death of Siptah. Accession of Queen Tewosret.
1189 BC Accession of Sethnakhte. Inception of Dynasty 20.
1184 BC Death of Sethnakhte. Accession of Ramesses III.
1179 BC War against the Libyans.
1176 BC War against the Sea Peoples.
1153 BC Assassination of Ramesses III. Accession of Ramesses IV.
1126 BC Death of Ramesses VIII. Accession of Ramesses IX.
1153–1069 BC Later Dynasty 20. Loss of Egyptian empire in SyriaPalestine and Nubia.
1069–702 BC Third Intermediate Period.
1069 BC Accession of Nesbanebdjed. Founding of Dynasty 21. Political division of Egypt between north and south.
945 BC Accession of Sheshonq I. Founding of Dynasty 22.
924 BC Death of Sheshonq I. Accession of Osorkon I.
925 BC Campaign of Sheshonq I in Palestine.
850–715 BC Gradual disintegration of Egypt into various principalities. Dynasties 22–24.
728 BC Invasion of Egypt by the Kushite king Piye.
720 BC Death of King Piye. Accession of Shabaqo in Nubia.
719 BC Conquest of Egypt by Shabaqo. Execution of Bakenrenef of Dynasty 24. Founding of Dynasty 25.
706 BC Death of Shabaqo. Accession of Shebitqo.
701 BC Battle of Eltekeh. Defeat of Egyptians by the Assyrians.
690 BC Death of Shebitqo. Accession of Taharqo. First definite date in Egyptian history.
671 BC First Assyrian invasion of Egypt. Temporary flight of Taharqo to Nubia.
667/666 BC Renewed Assyrian invasion. Retreat of Taharqo to Nubia.
664 BC Reconquest of Egypt by Tantamani. Death of Nekau I. Flight of Psamtik I to Assyria.
663 BC Assyrian invasion of Egypt. Sack of Thebes. Installation of Psamtik I as vassal of Dynasty 26.
656 BC Installation of Nitocris, daughter of Psamtik I, as God’s wife in Thebes.
610 BC Death of Psamtik I. Accession of Nekau II.
609 BC Battle of Carchemish. Defeat of Nekau II by the Babylonians.
595 BC Death of Nekau II. Accession of Psamtik II. Invasion of Nubia. Adoption of Ankhnesneferibre as heiress to God’s wife of Amun.
589 BC Death of Psamtik II. Accession of Wahibre.
586 BC Installation of Ankhnesneferibre as God’s wife of Amun.
570 BC Overthrow of Wahibre by Ahmose II.
526 BC Death of Ahmose II. Accession of Psamtik III.
525 BC Persian conquest of Egypt. Dynasty 27.
486 BC Revolt against Persian rule.
484 BC Restoration of Persian rule. Appointment of Achaemenes as satrap.
459 BC Rebellion of Inaros. Death of Achaemenes in battle.
454 BC Defeat of the rebellion of Inaros. Restoration of Persian rule.
404 BC Expulsion of Persians by Amyrtaeos of Dynasty 28.
399 BC Overthrow of Amyrtaeos. Accession of Nefaarud I of Dynasty 29.
393 BC Death of Nefaarud I. Accession of Hakor.
380 BC Death of Hakor. Accession and deposition of Nefaarud II. Accession of Nakhtnebef of Dynasty 30.
373 BC Abortive Persian invasion.
362 BC Death of Nakhtnebef. Accession of Djedhor.
360 BC Campaign against Persia. Overthrow of Djedhor. Acccession of Nakhthorheb.
343 BC Second conquest of Egypt by Persia. Flight of Nakhthorheb to Nubia.
332 BC Conquest of Egypt by Alexander the Great.
323 BC Death of Alexander the Great. Accession of joint kings Philip III Arrhidaeus and Alexander IV. Ptolemy I becomes satrap of Egypt.
317 BC Murder of King Philip III.
310 BC Murder of King Alexander IV.
305 BC Official acknowledgment of the death of King Alexander IV. Reign of Ptolemy I.
282 BC Death of Ptolemy I. Accession of Ptolemy II.
c. 270 BC Marriage of Ptolemy II and his sister Arsinoe I.
246 BC Death of Ptolemy II. Accession of Ptolemy III.
222 BC Death of Ptolemy III. Accession of Ptolemy IV.
217 BC Marriage of Ptolemy IV and his sister Arsinoe III.
205 BC Death of Ptolemy IV. Accession of Ptolemy V. Revolt of Harwennefer in southern Egypt.
199 BC Thebes temporarily taken by Ptolemaic forces. Accession of rebel Ankhwennefer.
191 BC Thebes retaken by Ptolemaic forces.
186 BC Final suppression of rebellion in the south.
180 BC Death of Ptolemy V. Accession of Ptolemy VI.
176 BC Marriage of Ptolemy VI and his sister Cleopatra III.
170 BC Joint rule of Ptolemy VI, Ptolemy VIII, and Cleopatra III.
170/169 BC First invasion of the Seleucid king Antiochus IV.
168 BC Second invasion of Antiochus IV. Withdrawal of Antiochus IV under Roman pressure.
168/167 BC Revolt of Dionysius Petosarapis.
163 BC Expulsion of Ptolemy VIII to Cyrenaica.
145 BC Death of Ptolemy VII in battle in Syria. Accession of Ptolemy VII. Accession of Ptolemy VIII and marriage to Cleopatra III. Murder of Ptolemy VII.
c. 140 BC Marriage of Ptolemy VIII to his niece, Cleopatra IV.
132–124 BC Civil War between Cleopatra II and Ptolemy VIII and Cleopatra IV.
116 BC Death of Ptolemy VIII. Accession of Ptolemy IX.
107 BC Expulsion of Ptolemy IX to Cyprus. Accession of Ptolemy X.
89 BC Expulsion of Ptolemy X. Restoration of Ptolemy IX.
88 BC Death of Ptolemy X in battle. Death of Ptolemy IX. Accession of Ptolemy XI. Murder of Ptolemy XI. Accession of Ptolemy XII.
58 BC Expulsion of Ptolemy XII. Reign of Berenice IV.
55 BC Restoration of Ptolemy XII. Murder of Berenice IV.
51 BC Death of Ptolemy XII. Accession of Ptolemy XIII and Cleopatra VII.
48 BC Civil War between Ptolemy XIII and Cleopatra VII. Arrival of Caesar in Alexandria.
47 BC Defeat and death of Ptolemy XIII. Accession of Ptolemy XIV as husband of Cleopatra VII.
44 BC Death of Ptolemy XIV.
36 BC Accession of Ptolemy XV Caesarion son of CleopatraVII and Caesar as joint rulers.
30 BC Conquest of Egypt by Rome.
69 AD Accession of Emperor Vespasian.
130 AD Visit of Emperor Hadrian.
312 AD Triumph of Constantine. Official recognition of Christianity.
391–2 AD Edicts of Emperor Theodosius against paganism.
394 AD Last dated hieroglyphic inscription found at Philae.
395 AD Division of the Roman Empire. Egypt becomes part of the Eastern (Byzantine) Empire.
452 AD Last attested demotic inscription found at Philae.
c. 530 AD Closure of the temple of Philae.
617–629 AD Persian (Sassanian) occupation of Egypt.
641 AD Arab invasion. Surrender of Alexandria.
642 AD Departure of Byzantine forces. Arab occupation of Egypt.
Historical Dictionary Of Ancient Egypt by Morris L. Bierbrier

Ancient Egypt. A Reference Guide. . 2011.

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